In Magience, everything has an element, and so everything can be classified. There are 4 Base elements, 2 Meta elements, and several sub-elements which are the combination of 2 Base. The elements are usually referred to when casting spells for magic.
Earth, Fire, Wind, and Water are the 4 Base elements. Fire is weak against Water but strong against Earth. Earth is weak against Fire but strong against Wind. Wind is weak against Earth but strong against Water. Water is weak against Wind but strong against Fire.
Aether and Vaesir are the 2 Meta Elements. Meta elements are strong against any element other than itself, but is also weak to every element at the same time.
Dark and Light are the 2 Shade elements. They are both weak against each other, and they can't be combined with any other elements than each other.
Races can have any Base or Meta element as an innate element - the element they are born with (this includes Players, though their element is based upon their personality as shown during character creation). They cannot be born with sub-elements innately, though they can learn them over time if they study magic.
When learning spells, a Player will have a harder time learning spells outside their own element. The exception to this are the Meta elements; Meta elements can learn any other element with ease, but will find it nearly impossible to master more than two, whereas any other element can master all 4 Base elements if they work hard enough.
There are certain traits associated with each element that can be found to some degree in anyone with that as their innate.
Aether - Aether as an element represents the positive forces in life. Compassion, Empathy, Kindness, Love, etc etc. Aether innates tend to be very empathetic and compassionate, almost to the point of sacrificing their own well-being to care for others.
Vaesir - Vaesir represents negative yet still necessary forces in life. Things that, when faced, can either help you grow as a person or consume you entirely. Anger, Doubt, Mistrust, Selfishness, etc etc. A Vaesir innate can be very self-absorbed and selfish, but they're often okay with that. They have the negative traits in abundance, but most don't let it rule their lives.
Water - Water as an element represents persistence, serenity, and adaptability. Water innates are logical, calm at all times and able to quickly solve problems in often unpredictable ways, but tend to be fairly one-directional and close-minded in their thinking despite being able to adapt to situations fairly well.
Fire - Fire as an element represents passion, energy, daring. They can be very hot-tempered, but on the whole are very courageous. Their passions can overtake them, so they can become obsessive fairly easily.
Earth - Earth represents patience, diligence, responsibility. Much like Water they're very calm even in the face of adversity, but they can be a bit on the stubborn side when it comes to morals and their personal code of honor - they're not close-minded, oddly enough, and are open to new ideas, but when it comes to ethics and behavior it will be very hard to change their mind regarding anything.
Wind - Wind represents freedom, impulse, and is very carefree. They don't like to be tied down unless it's their own choice, and hate being restricted in what they can or cannot do. They often have wild senses of humor and like to find the fun in every situation. They're a bit flighty, having a new interest every week and often dropping projects before they finish if they get bored.
When using elemental magic, it becomes much easier (and the spell more powerful) if the Player syncs with the element they are going to cast - however, it's not mandatory. A Player can align their feelings with the element of their spell. For example when using a Fire spell they feel angry or destructive, making the spell stronger and, ironically, easier to manipulate. For sub-elements, the Player can try to balance their feelings between the elements they're trying to use. When attempting to combine opposing elements, this can be particularly difficult.
If a Player does research and learns the emotions needed for each element, they gain the Elemental Understanding ability, which makes it even easier to cast elemental spells, requiring less concentration and emotional manipulation.
Fire - Anger, destruction.
Water - Calm, serenity,a desire to help.
Wind - Happiness, flighty, a sense of freedom.
Earth - Serious, patient, solidarity.
Aether - A difficult element to pin down. Seems to be any positive emotion.
Vaesir - Also a difficult element to pin down. Seems to be any negative emotion.
Non-elemental magic does exist, though not much is known about it at this point in time other than it's possible to do. It's thought to be more an inclusion and manipulation of all elements rather than an absence of them, making "Non-Elemental" a misnomer.